The amnesty remained a platform used by the government to reduced hostility in the Niger Delta region in order for economic activities to strive. However, the issues of marginalization, water pollution, environmental degradation, high level of youth unemployment etc still stare at the people of the Niger Delta. In search of lasting peace the question is did the Presidential Amnesty Programme (PAP) of June 2009 addressed these daunting challenges of underdevelopment in the region. Though, the PAP has its strength but its challenges are enormous, as the PAP is did not hoslitically address the issues bedevilling the Niger Delta, also noncombatant’s plight were not considered, with an over inflated number of fighters for the PAP juicy packages, children, women and host communities were never considered. The Niger Delta remained the fulcrum of the Nigerian economy, as it was produces about 80% of Nigeria’s export and is home to mainly the Ijaws and other minorities ethnic groups in the region. Both marginalization and continued exploration activities by International Oil Companies has ensured the region stay underdevelopment with daunting economic and social challenges.
The Ijaws predominantly scattered in the Niger Delta region which is part of the “Notorious Slave Coast with established City-states, the Ijaw merchants traded with the Europeans from the 15th Century but colonisation saw the Ijaws subsumed in what became Nigeria. To this end the Ijaws have continuously fought and agitated for better recognition in the Nigerian State, using both violent and peaceful movements to push home their demand for self determination in the Nigerian State.